tko-subs: detect and takeover subdomains with dead DNS records
This tool allows:
- To check whether a subdomain can be taken over because it has:
- a dangling CNAME pointing to a CMS provider (Heroku, Github, Shopify, Amazon S3, Amazon CloudFront, etc.) that can be taken over.
- a dangling CNAME pointing to a non-existent domain name
- one or more wrong/typoed NS records pointing to a nameserver that can be taken over by an attacker to gain control of the subdomain’s DNS records
- To actually take over those subdomains by providing a flag
-takeover. Currently, take over is only supported for Github Pages and Heroku Apps and by default, the take over functionality is off.
- To specify your own CMS providers and check for them via the providers-data.csv file. In that file, you would mention the CMS name, their CNAME value, their string that you want to look for and whether it only works over HTTP or not. Check it out for some examples.
go get github.com/anshumanbh/tko-subs
The next thing we need to do is to get the following information:
- Github’s Personal Access Token – Make sure this token has the rights to create repositories, references, contents, etc. You can create this token here – https://github.com/settings/tokens
- Heroku Username and API key
- Heroku app name – You can create a static app on Heroku with whatever you want to be displayed on its homepage by following the instructions here – https://gist.github.com/wh1tney/2ad13aa5fbdd83f6a489. Once you create that app, use that app name in the flag (see below). We will use that app to takeover the domain (with the dangling CNAME to another Heroku app).
NOTE – You only need these values if you want to take over subdomains. By default, that’s not required.
Once you have everything installed,
cd into the directory and type:
If you want to take over as well, the command would be:
If you just want to check for a single domain, type:
If you just want to check for multiple domains, type:
- the domains flag is set to domains.txt
- the data flag is set to providers-data.csv
- the output flag is set to output.csv
- the takeover flag is not set so no take over by default
- the domain flag is NOT set so it will always check for all the domains mentioned in the domains.txt file. If the
domainflag is mentioned, it will only check that domain and ignore the domains.txt file, even if present
- the threads flag is set to 5
So, simply running tko-subs would run with the default values mentioned above.
How is providers-data.csv formatted?
- name: The name of the provider (e.g. github)
- cname: The CNAME used to map a website to the provider’s content (e.g. github.io)
- string: The error message returned for an unclaimed subdomain (e.g. “There isn’t a GitHub Pages site here”)
- http: Whether to use http (not https, which is the default) to connect to the site (true/false)
How is the output formatted?
- Domain: The domain checked
- CNAME: The CNAME of the domain
- Provider: The provider the domain was found to be using
- IsVulnerable: Whether the domain was found to be vulnerable or not (true/false)
- IsTakenOver: Whether the domain was taken over or not (true/false)
- Response: The message that the subdomain was checked against
If a dead DNS record is found,
Provider is left empty. If a misbehaving nameserver is found,
CNAME are left empty
What is going on under the hood?
This will iterate over all the domains (concurrently using GoRoutines) in the
subdomains.txt file and:
- See if they have a misbehaving authoritative nameserver; if they do, we mark that domain as vulnerable.
- See if they have dangling CNAME records aka dead DNS records; if they do we mark that domain as vulnerable.
- If a subdomain passes these two tests, it tries to curl them and get back a response and then try to see if that response matches any of the data provider strings mentioned in the providers-data.csv file.
- If the response matches, we mark that domain as vulnerable.
- Next, depending upon whether the takeover flag is mentioned or not, it will try to take over that vulnerable subdomain.
- For example, to takeover a Github Page, the code will:
- Create a repo
- Create a branch gh-pages in that repo
- Upload CNAME and index.html to the gh-pages branch in that repo. Here, CNAME contains the domain that needs to be taken over. index.html contains the text This domain is temporarily suspended that is to be displayed once the domain is taken over.
- Similarly, for Heroku apps, the code will:
- Add the dangling domain to your Heroku app (whose name you will be provided in the .env file)
- And, that’s it!
Copyright (c) 2016 Anshuman Bhartiya