Programming Actuators For Everyday Use
All management of houses with well-established automation is centralized in the PLC controls.
The integrated PLC control system includes microcontrollers. They allow more complex inputs from sensors or other devices to control the linear actuator. Microcontrollers also allow you to perform time trap calculations to detect movement at the ideal position or use timers to detect position errors in your actuators.
Actuators use a special device, the main purpose of which is to transfer the load with the control or regulating mechanism to the actuator. There are many different methods for creating linear movement in a linear actuator. In most cases, an engine is used that transmits movement to the stem. The rod extends or retracts, moving along the guide. Linear actuators in most cases use a screw, that is, the so-called screw gear, to ensure linear movement. Due to the rotation of the screw relative to the nut or vice versa, linear movement of the stem is ensured.
The motors used in linear units are most often standard collector devices operating on direct current at 12 or 24 V. To change the direction of movement of the rod, you must change the direction of rotation of the engine. For example, in a collector engine, the polarity of the power supply should be reversed. For this purpose, a switch is added to the design, thanks to which the polarity of the power supply is reversed. As a result, by simply pressing a button, you can change the rotation of the engine, which means alternately extending or retracting the stem.
Linear actuators available today can have different strokes. This means that the units are created with different body and propeller lengths. In addition to the stroke length, the speed and force that are created on the unit rod are of paramount importance. To provide the required speed and rod force, the device needs to be upgraded. To do this, a mechanical gearbox is placed between the engine shaft and the screw.
The engine transmits speed and force to the shaft, which is unchanged. The engine, on the other hand, changes the ratio of speed and torque, due to which the final speed of the rod movement changes, as well as the generated force. The movement of the screw also represents a gear that affects the speed and power ratio. Smaller screw pitch provides more force. However, the rod will move at a slower speed.
To be able to stop the rod in the required position, limit switches are placed in the unit. They begin to work at the moment when the nut reaches its extreme position. For this purpose, the sensors are placed in their final positions. When the stem reaches this position, the sensor turns off the power supply. Further, the rod can only move in the opposite direction. To do this, the polarity of the power supply is changed or the engine is reversed.
Usage For Every Day
Actuators are widely used almost everywhere. They can be used in a variety of applications, for example, to adjust the position of a television receiver, change the position of your sofa, bed, and armchairs, to close windows, to move blinds, in toys. Due to their performance ratings, actuators are widely used in automobiles, aircraft, submarines, steamships, and even spacecraft.